The awareness of climate change and the limited availability of resources demands reconsideration of the resources used in vehicle production. Also according to the current scenario of automotive industries, designers are focusing on the development of lightweight, compact and high pressure engines.
This demands downsizing of the engine components without compromising its strength. The consistent use of lightweight components in conventional automobile leads to a reduction in fuel consumption and also to a reduction in CO2 emissions.
The objective of the project is development of a new, innovative design for lightweight crankshaft (an automobile engine component) and efficient manufacturing process of the developed lightweight crankshaft. Real prototypes will be produced by appropriate and cost-effective manufacturing technologies. With the help of the prototypes, achievable effects regarding lightweight design, increase of manufacturing efficiency, cost minimization, its performance etc. will be validated and further potentials will be estimated.
Progress achieved in the progress were base crankshaft finalization, conceptual design and manufacturing process, crankshaft material selection, hollow crankshaft segment dummies, crankshaft geometrical design, prototype manufacturing.Read
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and also those on dialysis (CKD-5D) show an increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity due to several risk factors including hyperphosphataemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anaemia, dyslipidemia and uremic retention solutes toxicity.
Protein-bound uremic toxins, such as phenylacetic acid, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresylsulfate contribute substantially to the progression of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, based on their protein-binding these hydrophobic toxins are poorly cleared during conventional hemodialysis or even hemodiafiltration and thus accumulate in CKD-5Dpatients. Therefore, this project aims at the development, characterisation and validation of adsorbant particles for the removal of uremic toxins from plasma of chronic renal failure patients.
The primary task of the kidneys is the elimination of urinary waste products. The kidneys from patients with chronic renal failure are not able to perform this task. It is well known that life expectancy in renal failure is markedly diminished not only due to the symptoms commonly known as "uremic syndrome", but also due to considerably increased cardiovascular mortality. By dialysis this condition can be alleviated, although current dialysis techniques still are far away from replacing the natural elimination of uremic toxins by the kidneys.
Dialysis is based on the principles of diffusion and filtration; the dialysis membranes currently used solely act as filtering membranes. The major drawbacks of current dialysis are related to these principles of action: By filtration and diffusion with a cut-off lower than 18 kDa preferably low molecular weight hydrophilic substances are eliminated, whereas macromolecules as well as protein-bound small molecules are largely retained in the blood plasma. A better understanding on the interaction of uremic toxins with blood proteins and the equilibrium between protein bound toxins and non-protein bound toxins can be controlled is expected to lead to a more effective dialysis.
The elimination of protein-bound hydrophobic low molecular uremic toxins is highly important, since cardiovascular disease with end-stage renal failure thought to be associated with low molecular hydrophobic toxin substances, which are poorly removed by dialysis. These substances have a very low solubility in the aqueous dialysis medium due to their hydrophobicity. Moreover, they exhibit a high degree of protein binding capacity to plasma proteins in case of chronic renal failure patients and can not be removed , because the protein/toxin complex is larger than the cut-off of dialysis membranes. Thus, only the non-protein-bound portion of the respective uremic toxin is removed. Up to now there are no routine methods available to eliminate these low molecular hydrophobic substances from the plasma of dialysis patients. The possibility to increase the pores of the dialysis membranes is limited by the necessity to retain plasma proteins (e.g. albumin) due to their important physiological actions.
The goal of this consortium is development/modification, characterisation and validation of adsorbing material to remove the uremic toxins from serum of renal failure patients. In the development of more effective dialysis techniques, a first step has done is to increase not only life expectancy of renal failure patients, but also their quality of life. E. g., the development of portable dialysis devices crucially depends on more effective elimination techniques allowing sufficient toxin elimination also with lower blood flows than currently used.
Within the experimental design of the NPORE project, project consortium proved that PEI-PVP-I microparticles have a high dewetting contact angle (47°±8), thus a predominant antifouling character is ensured. Next to it, PEI-PVP-I microparticles present suitable hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity as well as higher binding affinity for UTs, thus, PEI-PVP-I microparticles can confidently be considered as a good candidate for further adsorption experiments.Read
A means to optimize structural design and specifically the structural health monitoring (SHM) systems associated to those is achieved by simulation. Many of the simulation tools and algorithms for SHM have been developed at disparate locations and for specific applications.
The wide field of SHM encompassing subjects such as materials, structures, fatigue and fracture, physical principles of non-destructive testing (NDT), and possibly much more requires a thorough configuration of networked simulation tools and algorithms leading to something being considered as an open platform for SHM systems simulation and configuration. The main objective of INDEUS is as follows:
The overall outcome from the project is the simulation platform and the demonstrated processes that will help to create SHM based concept of designing structures and develop necessary processes for realizing such concept in an actual hardware and further to meet the emerging application needs in the aerospace and infrastructure industries.
The project established an SHM simulation process flow which was verified with the help of various commercial tools, simulation data and experimental tests developed by respective partners. To bridge the existing gaps in the simulation process, which are in the areas of data integration process, ultrasonic sensor network design and signal simulations, an Ultrasonic NDE-SHM Simulation Software was developed by IISc. The software tool developed is proposed to be used further in extensive simulation and computational benchmarking efforts with industries including Airbus.Read
The regular inspection of concrete structures is necessary to assess their condition and get data to serve as a base for planning maintenance and repair.
Concrete inspection for structure (damages) and material properties (deterioration) is not possible with a single method approach. Effects of deterioration processes and structural changes are non-uniform in nature and must be addressed by a multi-method approach
Robot and scanner systems have facilitated the collection of high quality multi-sensory data. Nevertheless, individual sensor data is often independently analyzed and compared against the data from other sensors at decision level.
Thus, the potential of multi-sensory information is typically not fully realized. Fusing multi-sensory data can close this gap and pave the way for automated evaluation of multimodal data sets
Honeycombing defects (Honeycombs are porous volumes of coarse grain aggregates bonded together by cement) are formed when the fresh concrete ingredients segregate and also due to poor workmanship.
Detection and characterization of honeycombs is a challenging inspection task due to their strong variability in size, shape, position, orientation and density. Moreover, unlike voids of the comparable size, honeycombs introduce a gradual and volumetrically distributed change in material properties.
The main goals of the project were:
The objective of the project is to develop a low cost concentrating collector for production of medium temperature heat, designed for Indian climate, cost and production conditions. This will be a technology solution for affordable solar energy in distributed power generation which is necessary in India, and as fuel saver in feed water preheating applications of large thermal power plants mainly operated by coal.
The development of such a collector is considered as an innovative solution in the field of low cost renewable energy production. It is also environmentally friendly technology as carbon dioxide emissions will be avoided by these installations. The cooperative nature of the project combines technological know-how on the Indian and German sides on specific issues, thus aiming at a unique adapted technology solution for the Indian market.
The project seeks to develop industrial scale Linear Fresnel Reflector (ILFR) designed with high accuracy for meeting the temperature requirements between 250 – 300oC. Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector System (CLFR) comprises of a series of long, narrow, shallow-curvature (almost flat) mirrors that focus light onto a linear receiver positioned above the mirrors. A small reflector can be attached on top of the receiver to further focus the incoming solar radiation. CLFR system promises lower overall costs due to ground level laid reflectors, while still using the simple line-focus geometry with one axis for tracking. Two major applications of this range in temperature is for (a) High end industrial heating applications (60% of the industrial heating is 150 – 220oC while 25% process heating require 220 – 300oC) and, (b) For providing heat into the coal based thermal power plant cycle which ultimately converts this solar energy into electricity through an indirect regenerative cycle integration. Both these applications are very critical in terms of saving of fossil fuel, CO2 reduction and the most optimum way of integrating renewable energy into the existing fossil systems.
Specifically this project envisages setting up of a 250kWth CLFR facility and integrating the same with an existing thermal power unit. The demonstration project is being setup alongside the thermal power unit at the Heavy Water Plant (Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India) at Manuguru, Andhra Pradesh, India.Read
Environmental stresses are a primary cause of loss of productivity of agricultural crops across the world. Enhanced production of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates (ROIs) during phases of environmental stress pose a serious threat to survival of plants. Efficiency of the ROI scavenging mechanisms in a plant is an important determinant of its tolerance for different environmental stresses.
This project aims at over-expressing genes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione pathway in crop plants to deactivate ROI molecules and protect plant cells from oxidative damage. The project also seeks to over express ABA catabolism genes for regulating the expression levels of plant stress hormone ABA. Project aims to improve tolerance to drought alone or to a combination of drought and heat stresses by improving the assimilation rate at critical stages such as anthesis, fertilization and onset of seed development by manipulating ABA signaling events. Simultaneous efforts will be made to tackle secondary effects such as stress-mediated cell death by creating an efficient scavenging system of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) under combined heat and drought stress through gene pyramiding. Plants use Ascorbate-glutathione cycle for scavenging reactive oxygen intermediates in multiple redox reactions to prevent cellular damage. The project team has successfully cloned entire Ascorbate-glutathione pathway encoding genes into a single plant transformation vector and generated putative transgenic maize plants in India and barley plants in Germany. The analysis of these transgenic lines for transgene integration, expression and stress tolerance is now underway.
Maize transgenics were developed using the construct having five genes viz.sod, apx, dhr, mdhr and gr which play the key role in ascorbated-glutathione pathway and also with two genes construct viz., rpk and nced which play key role in ABA pathway. Both of the transgenic lines were thoroughly screened and characterized by using physiological, biochemical and molecular methods in field and lab levels. Gene expression was tested at both DNA and RNA levels and southern analyses were carried out to assess the copy numbers. Multiple insertions were observed in lines developed with five gene construct. Hence they were back crossed with Wt for getting lines having single insertions. Single copy insertions were observed in line developed with the construct having two gene cassette with rpk and nced genes. Selected elite lines were tested in field by inducing the abiotic stress by not administering the water in pots. Transgenics could survive more number of days when compared to the control plants.
These two different lines of transgenics having Ascorbate-glutothione pathway genes in one and ABA pathway genes in the other are more important to survive in the severe drought conditions. The pyramiding of all these genes into plants by breeding programme helps a lot to have the improved tolerance to drought alone or to a combination if drought and heat stresses by having the genes which play key roles in two important biochemical pathways involved in abiotic stress management.Read
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an important grain legume crop of high nutritive value, is mostly grown in low-input and on residual moisture in Indian and semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. India is the largest producer and consumer of chickpea. However India imports at least 40% of the international chickpea production.
Due to insufficient rainfall in arid and semi-arid growing areas, the crop often suffers from drought. Terminal drought globally is the major constraint for chickpea production. In the past, breeding efforts to improve drought tolerance have been hindered due to its quantitative genetic basis and our poor understanding of the physiological basis of yield under water-limited conditions. Recent advances in chickpea genomics including the genome sequence, unraveled gene networks and genetic variation controlling valuable traits in elite breeding populations. This project explored the resources developed (eg. in a different project, ICRISAT produced >400,000 ESTs from chickpea genotypes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, with the help of expertise available at University of Frankfurt / GenXPro in Germany and ICRISAT/BenchBio in India to identify candidate genes for drought tolerance in chickpea.
In this context, a transcriptome assembly (ca. 60,000 contigs) was generated and 3,000 dehydration stress-responsive genes involved in major drought-stress signalling cascades were identified. Robust drought-responsive candidate genes were identified from MACE libraries and 50 qRT-PCR assays for drought responsive candidate genes were studied. Furthermore, KASPar assays were developed for 2,005 SNPs and a high density molecular map of chickpea comprising 1,328 loci was developed. In addition, an Integrated SNP Mining and Utilization (ISMU) pipeline, a computational tool for identifying SNPs in NGS data sets was developed. This project eventually helped to enhance breeding efficiency for developing superior chickpea varieties with higher yield under rainfed conditions.Read
In the upcoming years, crop production will be facing an increased demand by the growing and changing world population on the one hand and strong limitations by increasing abiotic stresses, like drought and temperature changes caused by the global climate change on the other hand. Thus, breeders and plant scientists have to provide crop varieties with higher yield, improved yield stability and stress tolerance traits to maintain and increase a sustainable crop production.
In order to enable and maintain growth of plants in the future changing and more extreme environmental conditions, it is required to identify novel mechanisms to improve drought tolerance of crops. To reach this, in this 2+2 project plants were modified to express stress-induced genes from plants growing at extremely high altitudes of India. Such genes have been identified by the Indian partner at IHBT and were transformed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (CSIR-IHBT, India) and in crops (Oilseed rape (OSR), Deutsche Saatveredelung AG (DSV AG), Germany and corn, Krishidhan Research Foundation Private Limited, India). In the end, nine different genes/gene combinations from plants growing in high altitude were transformed in 14 independent Arabidopsis lines, 6 genes in crops (OSR).
Growth of these genetically modified plants in mild drought stress conditions was analysed with state-of-the-art plant phenotyping technologies at Forschungszentrum Juelich with image analysis methods to quantify a drought tolerance mediated by the transgene. All nine different genes or combinations of genes were investigated in the model plant Arabidopsis for improvement of growth under mild drought stress; an improved drought tolerance could not be detected. Three lines expressing the transgenes in OSR have been characterised for growth under mild drought stress, also not showing significant changes indicating drought tolerance. To characterise the growth in extreme drought stress, novel technologies have been developed to quantify changes in morphology (Arabidopsis), or yellowing of the leaves (oilseed rape) in extreme drought stress, as it occurs especially in India. The three transgenic rapeseed lines were investigated for changes in yellowing during drought stress, but no improvement of drought tolerance by the transgenes was observed.
However, physiological and biochemical analyses showed that transgenic arabidopsis overexpressing CsTLP improved drought tolerance. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing a transcription factor RaWRKY exhibited improvement in seed yield. Transgenic arabidopsis co-over-expressing PaSOD and RaAPX showed improved lignification of the vascular tissue that was associated with improvement of stress tolerance. Transcriptome of Potentilla atrosanguinea was deciphered and also using the Caragana jubata, project consortium solved a long standing question on the molecular mechanism of high altitude plants which makes them to thrive in cold desert at high altitude. Promoters of several stress responsive genes were cloned from Rheum australe.Read
The need for developing drug delivery agents has been realized long ago, but the progress made in this area is still not satisfactory. The carrier mediated delivery has several advantages as it enables the delivery of many drug molecules per uptake event and provides isolation from exposure to the systemic environment. We propose to entrap the drug molecules in the matrices of a biocompatible amphiphilic polymeric system.
The project therefore embodies the following broad objectives:
The proposed study holds enormous significance in the area of medicinal research as researchers across the world are looking for robust, non-toxic, and efficient drug delivery systems.Read
In the last five years a remarkable progress has been made for flexible and printed electronic components. However, the integration of multiple electronic components into completely flexible multifunctional systems is much less maturated. The FLEXIPRIDE project aims at designing such completely flexible multifunctional systems taking into account components with functionalities from multidisciplinary areas such as circuits, antenna, touch sensors, low power displays and solar cells.
Based on these heterogeneous components, a variety of specific multifunctional systems can be designed creating novel application scenarios and attractive synergic market impacts for the involved components. Proposed integrated products are: cheap use-and-throw printed paper solar cells (< 1.0 Euro/W), solar cell powered printed active RFID tags (< 0.2 Euro/tag) and printed electronic security seal (< 0.5 Euro/seal) etc.
FLEXIPRIDE addresses the development/improvement of existing printed electronic components within the consortium and their integration into various innovative multifunctional systems. For the realization of all these systems, the advantages of several printing technologies (screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset, lithography and inkjet) are combined, while keeping cost issues in mind. FLEXIPRIDE addresses not only integration of various electronic components but also required circuit designs and simulations. Quality inspection and control of the printed electronic devices is a prerequisite in order to market the products. Therefore, optical methods will be explored and optical device will be developed to monitor layer thickness and structural defects during printing. At the end of the project a system demonstrator will be presented that will be the basement for an introduction to the market.Read
Rising demand for fuels, increasing cost of production, dwindling supply of fossil resources, and negative impact of fossil fuels on the planet have led to massive efforts being launched across the globe for development of technologies that would provide sustainable fuels in coming decades. Renewable energy is the only sustainable alternative.
Liquid biofuels are essential and the world has decided generally to move rapidly from the food-competing first generation biofuels to second generation alternatives. Intensive work has led to a point where commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technologies looks very imminent over the next two years. First generation bioethanol, currently derived from corn and cane sugars, is being blended into gasoline in many countries including USA and India but is proving to be unsustainable. On the other hand, while bioethanol continues to enjoy the biofuel status, there are emerging other molecules that appear to be better biofuel candidates on account of their lower oxygen content, lower water miscibility, higher energy density, and higher blendability without significant changes in engine designs. Thus, quite a few biofuels have caught attention as fungible or drop-in biofuels. Butanol, though not quite classifying as a fungible fuel, is looking more promising of this lot of compounds on account of relatively higher maturity of its production technology (the technology was practiced on large scale during second world war).
Though theoretically thermo-chemical routes exist, both biobased ethanol and butanol are more viably produced through fermentation of via one or the other deconstruction technologies. Edible sugar based ABE fermentation has been a well known technology for Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol production and was first time developed in industrial scale by Chaim Weizmann in 1911. Subsequent emergence of more cost competitive petro-route led to the decline of the bio-butanol industry.
There are a few essential requisites in order to make bio-butanol cost competitive:
Cane sugar or corn sugar for biobutanol production is not only unviable economically, it is also un-sustainable. With the cost of cane and corn sugar exceeding USD 0.40/kg, even a 50% yield of butanol on sugars makes butanol unviable. Thus, cheaper sugar feedstock is required. The DBT-ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences has developed a technology platform that is able to provide fermentable sugars suitable for butanol production at less than USD 0.30/kg. This novel technology platform has been scaled to operate as a 10 ton biomass/day pilot plant in North India in the state of Uttrakhand. This forms the first basis of the present proposal corresponding to point 1 above.
The second basis addresses the second point in three parts namely (a), (b) and (c). Part (a) is currently being dealt with at ICT. Traditional ABE fermentation is able to provide 0.23-0.27g/g yield of n-butanol using one or the other species of Clostridia sp. (more often Clostridium acetobutylicum). Huge amount effort worldwide, through the tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, has not been able to raise the yield figures to any degree of significance. Under these circumstances, it appears more logical to produce acetone and butanol in possible yields while attempt to bring down the cost of manufacturing. This can be done through efficient and rapid fermentation strategies and novel technologies for butanol recovery and purification.
ICT has developed a two stage n-butanol fermentation process that splits the acidogenic and solventogenic stages and increases volumetric productivity by a factor of three. This will result in three fold reduction CAPEX but will result in dilute butanol stream (0.5-1% w/v). Typically, it is accepted that a butanol concentration in excess of 4% w/v is desirable for cost effective recovery. This is indeed true for traditional distillation or liquid extraction based recovery processes. The current proposal aims to offset this situation by devising membrane based technology with specified nano porous membranes for butanol recovery that will permit cost effective process even at low butanol concentrations.Read
Modern high-end cars run a variety of safety-critical, driver assistance and entertainment applications, amounting to 100 million lines of software code, which will grow to 200-300 million lines in the near future. However, ensuring the correctness of such software involves several software engineering, testing and debugging challenges, and pose major hindrance to the introduction of advanced functionality like next-generation driver assistance systems.
The problem is even more serious in electric vehicles, which contain an increased amount of electronics and software. Current software testing and debugging methods are focused on functional verification (i.e., whether the output value is correct). Ensuring the real-time properties of software (i.e., whether the output is produced at the right time) is still largely done on an ad-hoc basis, with high post-implementation testing, debugging and integration costs. Nevertheless, timing correctness is extremely important for safety-critical functionality and for software certification, which is increasingly becoming important within the automotive domain.
The goal of this project is to develop systematic approaches to timing analysis and optimization of automotive software. Timing properties of applications are closely tied to both, the software code and the architecture on which the code executes, which can be 50-100 electronic control units (ECUs) connected by CAN/FlexRay buses. Our approach will be architecture-aware, i.e., model the microarchitectural features of the ECUs, their scheduling policies, and the schedules of the buses over which they communicate. The unique features of our approach compared to current state-of-the art are (i) rather than treating software as arbitrary code, we will take into account the models (e.g., Simulink/Stateflow) from which the code is automatically synthesized, which will tighten and simplify timing analysis, (ii) we will develop techniques for synthesizing ECU and bus schedules automatically from software models and control performance requirements, which will involve the use of powerful constrained optimization, search and verification techniques (e.g., model checking), and (iii) we will extend existing functional software testing and debugging methods to make them architecture- and timing-aware.
The results from this project will be of industrial relevance, will significantly cut down automotive software development/testing costs, and will make next-generation automotive software more reliable. A major goal will be to extend existing software design tools with our proposed methods.Read